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4 Durrant, Jonathan. "The Osculum Infame: Heresy, Secular Culture, and the Image of the Witches’ Sabbath.” The Kiss in History. Karen Harvey, ed. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2005.
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6 "Happy Valentine's Day!" Guinness World Records News. February 14, 2008. Accessed: January 22, 2009.
7 "Kiss." Online Etymological Dictionary. Accessed: January 14, 2009.
8 Nyrop, Christopher. The Kiss and Its History. Trans. William Frederick Harvey. London, UK: Sands & Co, 1901.
9 Penn, Michael Philip. Kissing Christians: Ritual and Community in the Late Ancient Church. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.
10 Perella, Nicolas James. The Kiss Sacred and Profane: An Interpretive History of Kiss Symbolism and Related Religio-Erotic Themes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1969.
11 “The Kiss of Deaf: Chinese Man Ruptures Girlfriend’s Eardrum.” Rueters. December 8, 2008. Accessed: January 14, 2009.